• Yeni Kurniati Department of Food Science and Technology, Asa Indonesia University
  • Slamet Budijanto Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University
  • Lilis Nuraida Southeast Asian Food and Agricultural Science and Technology (SEAFAST) Center, Bogor Agricultural University
  • Fitriya Nur Annisa Dewi Primate Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University
  • Safrida Safrida Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Teuku Umar


AOM/DSS, BALB/C, Black Rice Bran, Caspase 3, Caspase 8, Colon Cancer, PCNA


Colon cancer is one of the degenerative diseases caused of death after lung and breast cancer. One of the food ingredients that potentially inhibites the occurrence of colon cancer is black rice bran. The aim of this study was to found the effect of black rice bran on apoptosis and cell proliferation on BALB/c mice. In this study, BALB/c mice were divided into three groups, they are normal group (K-), AOM/DSS induced tumor group (K+), and feeding black rice bran with induction of AOM/DSS (BRB). At the end of the study, all mice were terminated and the presence of nodule were analysed in colon tissue used imageJ application. The expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, and PCNA were analysed in colon tissue used q-RT PCR. The data obtained by analyzes of variance (ANOVA) and continued by Tukey HD different test at 5% level. Administration of BRB significantly decreased the expression of PCNA in comparison with that of control mice (K+) (0.58 ± 0.09 vs 5.22 ± 0.80). The expression of caspase 3 (0.91 ± 0.20) and caspase 8 (0.36 ± 0.15) of BRB significantly increased comparasion with control mice K+. Our results thus indicated that black rice bran performed to suppresed proliferation and induced apoptosis


[ACS] American Cancer Society. 2017. Cancer Facts and Figures in 2017. Association Cancer Society. Inc. Survillance Research.

Bravo R, Donald BH. 1987. Existence of two populations of cyclin proliferating cell nuclear antigen during the cell-cycle-association with DNA-replication sites. Joural Cell Biology. 105:. 1549-1554.

Foitzik A, Preckel H, Mumtsidu. 2009. Image-based quantification of apoptosis by caspase-3 activation. Application Note. Hamburg, DE: Biologicl Application PerkinElmer, Cellular Technologies, Germany GmbH Bio-discovery.

Forster GM, Raina K, Kumar A, Kumar S, Agarwal R, Chen MH, Bauer JE, McClung AM, Ryan EP. 2013. Rice varietal differences in bioactive bran components for inhibition of colorectal cancer cell growth. Journal Food Chemistry. 141: 1545-1552.

Ghavami S, Hashemi M, Ande SR, Yeganeh B, Xiao W, Eshraghi M, Bus CJ, Kadkhoda A, Wiechec E, Halayko AJ, Los M. 2009. Apoptosis and cancer: mutations within caspase genes. Journal of Medical Genetics 46: 497-510.

Glasauer A, Chandel NS. 2014. Targeting antioxidants for cancer therapy. Biochemical Pharmacology. Vol. 7:1-12.

Kim HY, Kim JH, Yang SB, Hong SG, Lee SA, Hwang SJ, Shin KS, Suh HJ, Park MH. 2007. A polysaccharide extracted from rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes enhances natural killer cell activity and exhibits anticancer effects. Journal of Medicine Food. 10:25–31.

Kim MJ, Hong SY, Kim SK, Cheong C, Park HJ, Chun HK, Jang Kh, Yoon BD, Kim CH, Kang SA. 2009. β-glucan enhanced apoptosis in human colon can-cer cells SNU-C4. Nutritioanl Research and Practice. 3(3): 180-184.

Kuno T, Hirose Y, Hata K, Kato K, Qiang SH, Kitaori N, Hara A, Iwasaki T, Yoshimura T, Wada K. 2006. Preventive effect of fermented brown rice and rice bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats. International Journal of Oncology. 25:1809–15.

Medina V, Edmonds B, Young GP. 1997. Induction of caspase-3 protease activity and apoptosis by butyrate and trichostatin a (inhibitors of histone deacetyla-se): dependence on protein synthesis and synergy with a mitochondrial/cyto-chrome c-dependent pathway. Journal of Cancer. 57: 3697-3707.

Moongngarm A, Daomukda N, Khumpika S. 2012. Chemical compositions, phytochemical, and antioxidant capacity of rice bran, rice bran layer, and rice germ. APCBEC Procedia. Vol. 2:73-79.

Norazalina S, Norhaizan ME, Hairuszah I, Norashareena MS. 2010. Anticarcinogenic efficacy of phytic acid extracted from rice bran on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Journal of Toxicology Pathology. 62:259–68.

Pengkumsri N, Chaiyasut C, Saenjum C, Sirilun S, Peerajan S, Suwannalert P, Sirisattha S, Sivamaruthi Bs. 2015. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand. Food Science Technology. 35 (2): 331-338.

Phutthaphadoong S, Yamada Y, Hirata A, Tomita H, Hara A, Limtrakul P, Iwasaki T, Kobayashi H, Mori H. 2010. Chemopreventive effect of fermented brown rice and rice bran (FBRA) on the inflammation-related colorectal carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. International Journal of Oncology. 23:53–9.

Rosa LS, Silva NJA, Soares NCP, Monteiro MC, Teodoro AJ. 2016. Anticancer properties of phenolic acids in colon cancer – a review. Journal of Nutrition Food Science. 6(2):1-7.

Ruemmele FM, Schwartz S, Seidman EG, Dione S, Levy E, Lentze MJ. 2003. Butyrate induced cac-2 cell apoptosis is mediated via the mitochondrial pathway. Journal of cancer. 52:94-100.

Sahai, Veena. 2015. Effect of fluoridation on caspase-3 protein forming gene in swiss albino mice. Journal Of Zoology. 04 : 13-18.

Sawitri Endang, Riwanto I, Tjahjono, dan Darmana Edi. 2012. Ekstrak bekatul hitam, pertumbuhan tumor dan proliferasi sel kanker kolorektal : studi eksperimental pada tikus Sprague-Dawley yang diinduksi 1,2 DMH. Jurnal Medika Media Indonesia. Vol 46, nomor 01, hal : 25-32.

Shi Y. 2002. Mechanism of caspase activation and inhibition during apoptosis. Molecular Cell . 9:459-470.

Yi W, Fischer J, Krewer G, and Akoh CC. 2005. Phenolic compounds from blueberries can inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Journal. Agriculture. Food Chemistry. 53, 7320 -7329

Yin MC, Lin CC, Wu HC, Tsao SM, Hsu CK. 2009. Apoptotic effect of protocatechuic acid in human breast, lung ,iver, cervix, and prostate cancer

cell : potential mechanisms of action. Journal Agriculture Food Chemistry. 57 : 6468-6473.